Defects and Deterioration
The term ‘defect’ may be used to describe a range of minor imperfections visible on the surface of the concrete. Some defects only affect the appearance of the concrete while others are symptomatic of deterioration of the strength. Defects may be broadly divided into those due to the construction, due to environmental attack or due to the loads applied to the structure. ‘Deterioration’ refers to a more general loss of performance.